Fields of Expertise

Business & Employment-Based

O-1 Visa:

The O-1 visa is for individuals with extraordinary ability or achievement in their field, which could be in the sciences, arts, education, business, or athletics. There are two primary categories:

  1. O-1A: For those with an extraordinary ability in the sciences, education, business, or athletics. This does not pertain to the arts, motion pictures, or television industry.

  2. O-1B: For those with an extraordinary ability in the arts or extraordinary achievement in the motion picture or television industry.

To qualify for the O-1 visa, the applicant needs to demonstrate a high level of accomplishment in their field, such as internationally recognized awards or a significant body of recognized work.


O-2 Visa:

The O-2 visa is for individuals who will accompany and assist an O-1 visa holder. They are essentially people who play an integral role in the O-1 visa holder’s performance. For example, in the arts, this could be essential support staff, while in athletics or science, it could be a key team member.

For an O-2 visa:

  1. The applicant must be essential to the O-1 visa holder’s activity or performance.
  2. For motion picture and television productions, the O-2 worker has skills and experience with the O-1 that cannot be readily performed by a U.S. worker and which are essential to the successful completion of the production.


Both the O-1 and O-2 visas require a U.S.-based petitioner (like an employer or agent) and typically require detailed documentation to demonstrate eligibility, including recommendation letters and evidence of the beneficiary’s accomplishments.

The duration of these visas varies, but the initial period can be up to three years, with extensions possible in one-year increments based on the continuation of the event or activity for which the visa was issued.

  1. E-1 Treaty Trader Visa:

    • Purpose: It is designed for nationals of treaty countries who engage in substantial trade with the U.S.
    • Qualification:
      • The applicant must be a national of a treaty country.
      • The trade must be substantial and principally (at least 50%) between the U.S. and the treaty country of which the applicant is a national.
      • The applicant must be either engaged in executive/supervisory duties or possess skills essential to the company.
  2. E-2 Treaty Investor Visa:

    • Purpose: It is for individuals or entities that make a significant investment in a U.S. business.
    • Qualification:
      • The investor, either a real or corporate person, must be a national of a treaty country.
      • The investment must be substantial, with investment funds or assets committed and irrevocably “at risk”. There is no set dollar figure that qualifies as a substantial investment, but it should be sufficient to ensure the investor’s financial commitment to the success of the business.
      • The enterprise must be a bona fide U.S. enterprise, and the investor must have control of the funds and the investment.
      • The applicant, if not the principal investor, must either be engaged in executive/supervisory duties or possess skills essential to the company.

Both visas require a treaty of commerce and navigation or a bilateral investment treaty to be in place between the U.S. and the applicant’s country. The length of stay can be extended in two-year increments with no maximum limit, as long as the visa holder can demonstrate that they meet the qualifications for the visa.

It’s important to note that while the E visas allow for conducting business, working, and living in the U.S., they do not directly lead to permanent residency (green card). If considering applying for an E visa, it’s recommended to consult with an immigration attorney to ensure all requirements are met and the process is understood.

The P Visa is a type of nonimmigrant visa issued by the United States to athletes, artists, and entertainers who wish to come to the U.S. for a specific event, competition, performance, or tour. There are several subcategories of the P Visa:

  1. P-1A: For internationally recognized athletes coming to the U.S. to participate in a specific competition or event. This can be for individual athletes or team members.

  2. P-1B: For members of an internationally recognized entertainment group. Solo artists usually don’t qualify unless they’re entering the U.S. to join a qualifying group.

  3. P-2: For artists or entertainers, either individually or as part of a group, who are coming to the U.S. to perform under a reciprocal exchange program between the U.S. and one or more foreign countries.

  4. P-3: For artists or entertainers who come to the U.S. either individually or as a group to develop, interpret, represent, teach, or coach in a performance or presentation that is culturally unique.

  5. P-4: For the spouse and unmarried children under 21 of a P-1, P-2, or P-3 visa holder. P-4 visa holders can accompany the primary visa holder to the U.S. but cannot engage in employment unless they have the appropriate work visa.

Each category has specific requirements and criteria that must be met. The sponsoring organization or individual in the U.S. typically files a petition on behalf of the foreign beneficiary with the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) to initiate the process. Once the petition is approved, the beneficiary can apply for the visa at a U.S. consulate or embassy in their home country.

The Form I-140, known as the “Immigrant Petition for Alien Worker,” is a document used in the United States for employment-based immigration. This form is filed by an employer in the U.S. on behalf of an employee, usually a foreign national, who is seeking permanent residency in the U.S. through an employment-based immigration visa.

Here’s a general overview of its components and purpose:

  1. Purpose: The primary purpose of Form I-140 is to request the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) to classify a foreign national as eligible for an immigrant visa based on employment.

  2. Categories: There are several categories under which Form I-140 can be filed, such as EB-1, EB-2, and EB-3, which cater to different types of workers like those with extraordinary abilities, professionals holding advanced degrees, skilled workers, etc.

  3. Employer’s Role: It’s the employer who must file the I-140 form, not the employee. The employer must demonstrate the ability to pay the offered wage from the time of filing.

  4. Documentation: The form requires various documentation, including proof of the employee’s qualifications, labor certification (if required), and evidence of the employer’s ability to pay.

  5. Processing Time and Fees: The processing time and fees for Form I-140 can vary depending on the category of the petition and the workload at USCIS.

  6. Adjustment of Status: After the I-140 is approved, the foreign national may apply for an Adjustment of Status (Form I-485) to become a lawful permanent resident, if a visa number is available.

  7. Premium Processing: Employers can opt for premium processing of the I-140, which expedites the review process for an additional fee.

  8. Impact of I-140 Approval: Approval of an I-140 does not grant the beneficiary any immediate rights to stay or work in the U.S. It’s a step towards obtaining a green card.

  9. Portability: Under certain conditions, an employee can change jobs or employers without affecting the status of their approved I-140 petition, a concept known as “job portability”.

  10. Revocation or Denial: The USCIS can revoke or deny an I-140 petition if it finds any fraud, misrepresentation, or invalidity in the petition.

Form I-140 is a crucial step in the journey towards employment-based permanent residency in the United States. It’s important for both employers and employees to understand its requirements and implications thoroughly.

  1. L-1A Visa for Managers and Executives:
    • Purpose: This visa allows a U.S. employer to transfer an executive or manager from one of its affiliated foreign offices to one of its offices in the U.S. It also allows a foreign company that does not yet have an affiliated U.S. office to send an executive or manager to the U.S. with the purpose of establishing an office.
    • Duration: Initially granted for a period of up to 3 years (or 1 year for new offices) with extensions available in 2-year increments. Maximum stay is 7 years.

  2. L-1B Visa for Employees with Specialized Knowledge:
    • Purpose: This visa permits a U.S. employer to transfer an employee with specialized knowledge from one of its affiliated foreign offices to one of its offices in the U.S. Specialized knowledge means either special knowledge about the company’s products, research, equipment, techniques, management, or other interests and its application in international markets, or an advanced level of knowledge or expertise in the organization’s processes and procedures.
    • Duration: Initially granted for up to 3 years with the possibility of extending for up to a maximum of 5 years.


For both L-1A and L-1B, there is a requirement that the beneficiary must have worked for the petitioning employer outside the U.S. for at least one continuous year within the three years preceding the application.

Additionally, the L-1 visa has a blanket petition system for larger companies that frequently transfer employees to the U.S. This allows the company to pre-qualify for L-1 visas and often streamlines the application process.

It’s worth noting that the spouse and unmarried children (under 21) of L-1 beneficiaries can come to the U.S. under the L-2 visa category. L-2 spouses are also generally eligible to apply for work authorization.

Remember, the specifics of any individual case and the current regulations should be discussed with an immigration attorney to get the most accurate and up-to-date advice.

H-1B Visa:

  • Purpose: This visa is designed for employers to temporarily employ foreign workers in “specialty occupations.” A specialty occupation is one that typically requires at least a bachelor’s degree or its equivalent.
  • Duration: Initially granted for up to three years, it can be extended, but generally not beyond six years. There are some exceptions under certain circumstances.
  • Eligibility: Beneficiaries (the visa applicants) typically need to possess at least a bachelor’s degree or its equivalent in the specific field in which they intend to work.
  • Cap: There’s an annual limit on the number of H-1B visas issued. As of my last update in 2021, the regular cap was set at 65,000 with an additional 20,000 for those with U.S. master’s degrees or higher.

H-2B Visa:

  • Purpose: This visa is for temporary or seasonal non-agricultural work, often used by industries like hospitality, landscaping, and others that have peak demand periods.
  • Duration: The length of the H-2B visa is tied to the employer’s temporary need, not to exceed one year. In some cases, extensions may be granted in increments of up to one year each, with a maximum stay of three years.
  • Eligibility: There are no specific educational requirements. However, the employer must establish that the job is temporary or seasonal in nature and that there aren’t enough U.S. workers available to do the work.
  • Cap: There’s an annual limit on the number of H-2B visas issued. As of 2021, the cap was set at 66,000 visas per fiscal year, divided equally between two halves of the fiscal year.


Both visas require employers to go through certain processes, such as obtaining a labor certification for the H-2B and filing petitions with the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS).

  1. Purpose: The B-1 visa is designed for those who wish to visit the U.S. temporarily for business-related activities, such as consultations, attending conferences or seminars, negotiating contracts, or settling estates. It is not meant for individuals seeking employment in the U.S.s

  2. Duration: Typically, the B-1 visa allows the holder to stay in the U.S. for a short period, often up to six months. However, the actual duration is determined at the port of entry by U.S. Customs and Border Protection officers.

  3. Prohibitions: B-1 visa holders cannot work for a U.S. employer or enroll in a full course of study. Also, they can’t perform work that would primarily benefit a U.S. entity.

  4. Extensions: In certain cases, B-1 visa holders can apply for an extension of their stay.

  5. Entry: The issuance of a B-1 visa doesn’t guarantee entry into the U.S. The final decision rests with the Customs and Border Protection officers at the port of entry.

  6. Eligibility: Applicants for the B-1 visa must demonstrate that they have strong ties to their home country, intend to leave the U.S. after their temporary visit, and have sufficient funds to cover their stay.

Applicants are also subjected to an interview process at a U.S. consulate or embassy and must provide documentation that supports the purpose of their trip.

Note: Visa rules and regulations can change, so it’s essential to refer to the U.S. Department of State or consult with an immigration attorney for the most current information and guidance specific to individual situations.

Family & Protection-Based

The I-130, officially known as the “Petition for Alien Relative,” is a U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) form used by U.S. citizens or lawful permanent residents (green card holders) to establish the qualifying relationship with certain alien relatives who wish to immigrate to the United States.

Filing the I-130 is the first step in helping a relative become a lawful permanent resident. Once approved, it can lead to the relative obtaining a family-based immigrant visa, and eventually, if all other requirements are met, a green card.

The I-130 form categorizes relatives into two main groups:

  1. Immediate Relatives: This includes the spouse, unmarried children under 21 years old, and parents of U.S. citizens. Immediate relatives generally have special immigration priority and won’t have to wait in line for a visa number to become available.

  2. Family Preference Categories: This includes more distant relatives like siblings of U.S. citizens, and spouses and unmarried children (of any age) of lawful permanent residents. There’s a limit to the number of immigrant visas available each year in these categories, so there can be a wait time.

It’s important to note that the I-130 form is only a petition to recognize the relationship. It doesn’t grant any immediate rights or status to the relative. After the I-130 is approved, there are other steps the relative must take, depending on their situation, to eventually obtain a green card.

Consular Processing is a procedure through which an individual outside the United States can apply for and obtain a U.S. immigrant visa. This process is conducted at a U.S. consulate or embassy in the applicant’s home country. Here are the general steps:

  1. Petition Approval: Before one can begin consular processing, a relative or employer in the U.S. typically files an immigrant petition on their behalf. For family-based visas, this is usually the I-130, Petition for Alien Relative. For employment-based visas, it might be the I-140, Immigrant Petition for Alien Worker. Once U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) approves the petition, it’s forwarded to the National Visa Center (NVC).

  2. National Visa Center (NVC) Processing: The NVC assigns a case number and requests the applicant’s choice of agent. The applicant will then need to pay the appropriate fees and submit necessary documentation, which usually includes an application form, supporting documents, and police clearances.

  3. Visa Interview: Once the necessary documents are received and processed by the NVC, the applicant will be scheduled for an interview at a U.S. consulate or embassy in their home country. During the interview, a consular officer will review the application, ensure all necessary documentation is in order, and assess the applicant’s eligibility for the immigrant visa.

  4. Medical Examination: Prior to the visa interview, applicants are required to undergo a medical examination. The exam must be conducted by a physician approved by the U.S. consulate.

  5. Visa Issuance: If the consular officer determines the applicant is eligible for the visa, it will be approved. The visa will be stamped in the applicant’s passport.

  6. Travel to the U.S.: Once the visa is granted, the individual can travel to the U.S. Upon arrival, they’ll be inspected by Customs and Border Protection (CBP) officers. After successful admission, the individual will become a lawful permanent resident and will receive a green card.

Remember, the specific steps and documentation required might vary based on the type of immigrant visa and the individual’s specific situation. It’s always advisable to consult with an immigration attorney or expert for personalized guidance.

Special Immigrant Juvenile Status (SIJS) is a type of immigration benefit that provides certain foreign children in the United States an avenue to secure lawful permanent residency (often leading to citizenship). These are children who have been abused, abandoned, or neglected by one or both of their parents.

Here’s a brief overview:

  1. Eligibility: To qualify, the child must be under the age of 21, unmarried, and physically present in the U.S. They must also have a juvenile court order stating that they have been subjected to maltreatment by one or both parents, and it’s not in their best interest to return to their home country.

  2. Juvenile Court Order: Before applying for SIJS, the child must obtain an order from a state juvenile court that finds:

    • The child has been abused, abandoned, or neglected.
    • It’s not in the child’s best interest to return to their country of origin.
    • The child should be placed in the custody of an individual or entity in the U.S.
  3. Benefits: Once SIJS is granted, the juvenile can apply for lawful permanent residency (a green card).

  4. Restrictions: Beneficiaries of SIJS cannot sponsor their parents or any siblings until they themselves become U.S. citizens. This provision is meant to prevent abusive or neglectful parents from benefiting from the immigration relief provided to their child.

  5. Application Process: The child, typically with the help of a legal guardian or representative, would first seek the necessary court order from a state juvenile court. After obtaining the order, they can then apply to U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) for SIJS. Once SIJS is approved, they can apply for lawful permanent residency.

It’s worth noting that SIJS has been a crucial relief for many vulnerable children, allowing them to escape abusive or neglectful environments and find stability and safety in the U.S.

The K visa is a category of nonimmigrant visas issued by the United States for foreign-citizen fiancé(e)s and spouses of U.S. citizens. It facilitates the process for them to travel to the U.S. for the purpose of marriage and eventual adjustment of status. Here are the primary types of K visas:

  1. K-1 Visa: Issued to the foreign-citizen fiancé(e) of a U.S. citizen. The K-1 visa allows the foreign-citizen fiancé(e) to travel to the U.S. and marry their U.S. citizen sponsor within 90 days of arrival. Following the marriage, the foreign citizen can apply for an adjustment of status to become a lawful permanent resident (LPR) of the U.S.

  2. K-2 Visa: Issued to the children of K-1 visa holders.

  3. K-3 Visa: For foreign-citizen spouses of U.S. citizens. This visa allows the spouse to come to the U.S. while they are awaiting the adjudication of a Form I-130, Petition for Alien Relative. It was introduced to reduce the separation time between a U.S. citizen and their foreign spouse.

  4. K-4 Visa: Issued to the children of K-3 visa holders.

The K visa process typically begins when the U.S. citizen files a petition with U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS). Once approved and processed, the foreign-citizen fiancé(e) or spouse must attend an interview at a U.S. embassy or consulate abroad.

After arriving in the U.S., K-1 visa holders must marry their U.S. citizen petitioner within 90 days, or they must leave the country. K-3 visa holders, on the other hand, can stay in the U.S. while they await the adjudication of their green card petition.

This is a simplified overview, and visa processes can be complex with numerous requirements, so it’s always recommended to consult with an immigration attorney or the USCIS for specifics related to individual situations.

The I-601A Provisional Waiver, often simply referred to as the “Provisional Waiver,” is a U.S. immigration process designed to facilitate family reunification while reducing the time that U.S. citizens and lawful permanent residents are separated from their immediate relatives who are seeking immigrant visas.

Here are the key points about the I-601A Provisional Waiver:

  1. Purpose: The waiver is primarily for those individuals who are ineligible to adjust their status to become U.S. permanent residents due to unlawful presence in the U.S., and who would face a three- or ten-year bar upon departing the U.S. to attend their immigrant visa interview at a U.S. embassy or consulate.

  2. Unlawful Presence Bars: Generally, individuals who accumulate more than 180 days but less than 1 year of unlawful presence in the U.S. and then leave face a three-year bar from returning. Those who accumulate a year or more of unlawful presence face a ten-year bar.

  3. Waiver of the Bar: The I-601A Provisional Waiver allows qualified individuals to apply for a waiver of the three- or ten-year bar due to unlawful presence before they depart the U.S. for their visa interview. This means they get a provisional approval that the unlawful presence bar will be waived, provided they are found otherwise eligible for the visa.

  4. Eligibility: The applicant must be an immediate relative of a U.S. citizen or lawful permanent resident (spouse, parent, or child). To be approved, the applicant must demonstrate that refusal of their admission would cause “extreme hardship” to their U.S. citizen or permanent resident spouse or parent.

  5. Process: Once the I-601A is provisionally approved, the individual will still need to leave the U.S. to attend the immigrant visa interview in their home country. With the provisional waiver in hand, the individual can depart with a higher degree of certainty that they’ll be able to return to the U.S. without facing the long bars of inadmissibility.

  6. Benefits: The primary benefit of the I-601A Provisional Waiver is that it reduces the time of family separation. Before this waiver existed, individuals had to depart the U.S., face the bars, and then apply for a waiver while outside the U.S., which could take months or even years for a decision.

It’s important to note that while the I-601A waiver addresses the bars for unlawful presence, it doesn’t address other grounds of inadmissibility. If an individual has other issues (e.g., criminal history), they may need to pursue other waivers or remedies.

Lastly, immigration laws and policies can be complex, so those considering applying for the I-601A Provisional Waiver or any other immigration benefit should consult with an immigration attorney to fully understand their options and any potential risks.

Temporary Protected Status (TPS) is a designation provided by the United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) to nationals of countries experiencing extreme conditions, such as ongoing armed conflict, environmental disasters, or other temporary and extraordinary conditions. It allows individuals from these countries who are already in the U.S. to remain and work in the U.S. for a limited time period because it may not be safe for them to return home.

Here are some key points about TPS:

  1. Not a Path to Permanent Residency: TPS is a temporary designation. It doesn’t lead directly to permanent residency (green card) or U.S. citizenship.

  2. Work Authorization: Individuals granted TPS can apply for work authorization to legally work in the U.S.

  3. Travel: With TPS, individuals may be granted permission to travel outside the U.S. and return, though this requires a separate application and approval.

  4. Renewal: TPS designations have an expiration date but can be extended by the DHS if conditions in the designated country haven’t improved.

  5. Termination: If DHS determines that a country no longer meets the criteria for TPS, the status for nationals of that country can be terminated.

It’s worth noting that the decision to designate a country for TPS, or to extend or terminate the designation, is based on various factors and can be influenced by political, social, and environmental considerations.

The Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) is a landmark piece of legislation in the United States that was designed to address and reduce domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking, particularly against women. 

Key aspects and provisions of VAWA include:

  1. Enhanced Legal Protections: VAWA improved the legal infrastructure to deal with domestic violence and sexual assault by introducing federal penalties for interstate domestic violence and stalking.

  2. Grant Programs: The Act provided federal funding to support and establish programs, services, and practices to support victims and to prevent such violence. This includes services for victims in rural areas, civil legal assistance, and programs targeting specific populations such as older victims and victims with disabilities.

  3. Community Violence Prevention Programs: It provided resources for community-coordinated responses to combat violence against women, integrating the legal system, law enforcement, and social services.

  4. Improved Law Enforcement and Prosecution Tools: It enabled authorities to more effectively investigate and prosecute violent crimes against women, including training for law enforcement and the establishment of a national domestic violence hotline.

  5. Housing Provisions: Recognizing that domestic violence can lead to housing instability and homelessness, VAWA implemented housing protections for survivors.

  6. Reauthorization and Expansion: VAWA has been reauthorized multiple times since 1994, with each iteration expanding and refining its provisions. For example, the 2013 reauthorization expanded protections to Native American women and provided additional protections for LGBTQ+ victims and immigrants.

  7. Immigrant Provisions: Recognizing that immigrant women can be particularly vulnerable, VAWA has provisions that allow certain immigrant victims of domestic violence, sexual assault, and other crimes to apply for legal immigration status without relying on abusive US citizen or legal resident spouses, parents, or children.

VAWA was groundbreaking not only in the protections it introduced but also in how it changed the national discourse on domestic violence and sexual assault, making it a prominent issue in public policy.

The U visa is a type of nonimmigrant visa available to noncitizens in the United States. It is specifically designed for victims of certain crimes who have suffered mental or physical abuse and are helpful to law enforcement or government officials in the investigation or prosecution of criminal activity.

  1. Eligibility: Victims of qualifying criminal activities that either occurred in the U.S. or violated U.S. laws can apply if they suffered substantial physical or mental abuse due to the crime and have been, are, or are likely to be helpful to the investigation or prosecution.

  2. Qualifying Crimes: Some of the crimes that may qualify for U-Visa status include (but are not limited to) domestic violence, sexual assault, trafficking, kidnapping, manslaughter, and murder.

  3. Benefit: The U-Visa grants a temporary legal status that allows victims to remain in the U.S. for up to 4 years. Some family members (spouses, children, and in certain cases, parents and siblings) might also be eligible for a derivative U-Visa.

  4. Path to Green Card: U-Visa holders can apply for a green card (permanent residency) after 3 years of continuous presence in the U.S.

  5. Certification: A critical component of the U-Visa application is a certification from law enforcement or another certifying agency that verifies the victim’s cooperation or potential cooperation in the investigation or prosecution of the crime.

  6. Cap: There’s an annual cap of 10,000 U-Visas. However, this cap doesn’t apply to derivative beneficiaries, such as certain qualifying family members.

  7. Protection from Deportation: While the U-Visa application is pending, the applicants and certain family members may be eligible for protection against deportation and may receive authorization to work in the U.S.

The U-Visa serves as both a tool for law enforcement and a means of protection and support for victims of serious crimes.

Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) is a U.S. immigration policy introduced by the Obama administration in June 2012. It grants temporary relief from deportation and provides eligibility for a work permit to certain undocumented immigrants who were brought to the U.S. as children. Here are the main points:

  1. Purpose: DACA provides temporary relief from deportation and work authorization for individuals who were brought to the U.S. as children and met specific criteria. It doesn’t provide a path to citizenship, but it does allow eligible recipients to work, study, and live in the U.S. without the immediate threat of deportation.

  2. Eligibility: To be eligible, applicants must meet several criteria, including:

    • Arrived in the U.S. before their 16th birthday.
    • Were under 31 years old as of June 15, 2012.
    • Have continuously resided in the U.S. since June 15, 2007.
    • Were physically present in the U.S. on June 15, 2012, and at the time of making the DACA request.
    • Had no lawful status on June 15, 2012.
    • Have completed high school or a GED, have been honorably discharged from the armed forces, or are currently enrolled in school.
    • Have not been convicted of a felony, a significant misdemeanor, or three or more other misdemeanors, and do not pose a threat to national security or public safety.
  3. Benefits: DACA recipients, often called “Dreamers”, do not get a path to citizenship or permanent legal status, but they do receive:

    • Protection from deportation for two years (subject to renewal).
    • Eligibility for a work permit.
    • Ability to obtain a driver’s license in some states.
  4. Temporary: DACA is not a permanent solution. It is a form of prosecutorial discretion, meaning it is a decision by the government not to deport a person for a specified time. It does not provide lawful status or a path to citizenship.

Green Cards (Permanent Residency)

The EB-1 is a preference category for U.S. employment-based permanent residency (or “green card”). It is intended for “priority workers.” The category is divided into three sub-groups:

  1. EB-1A (Extraordinary Ability): For individuals who have achieved top-tier recognition in their fields, such as the sciences, arts, education, business, or athletics. One does not necessarily need a specific job offer as long as they are entering the U.S. to continue work in the field in which they have demonstrated extraordinary ability.

  2. EB-1B (Outstanding Professors and Researchers): For professors and researchers who are internationally recognized for their outstanding achievements and have at least three years of experience in their academic field. A job offer from a U.S. institution of higher education or a research organization is typically required.

  3. EB-1C (Multinational Manager or Executive): For managers and executives transferring to the U.S. from a same or affiliated company located outside the U.S. The applicant must have been employed outside the U.S. in a managerial or executive capacity for at least one year in the three years preceding the application.

One of the primary benefits of the EB-1 category is that visas are generally available immediately, meaning that qualified applicants can often proceed to apply for permanent residency without long waiting periods that are common in other employment-based categories.

EB-2 is also an immigrant visa category that culminates in permanent residence (green card) for foreign professionals in business, medicine, the sciences and arts, technology, and athletics, whose existing or prospective work or research would benefit the United States on a national scale.

Here’s a breakdown:

  1. Advanced Degree or Its Equivalent: The foreign national should hold a U.S. advanced degree or its foreign equivalent, OR a U.S. bachelor’s degree or its foreign equivalent followed by at least five years of progressive experience in the profession.

  2. Exceptional Ability: Individuals with exceptional ability in the sciences, arts, or business. Exceptional ability means having a degree of expertise significantly above that ordinarily encountered.

  3. National Interest Waiver (NIW): Some EB-2 applicants may be eligible for a National Interest Waiver. This means they can waive the job offer and Labor Certification requirements if their employment would benefit the U.S. significantly.

It’s important to note that most EB-2 applications also require a job offer from a U.S. employer and a Labor Certification from the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL). The Labor Certification ensures that there are no qualified U.S. workers who are able, willing, qualified, and available in the geographic area where the immigrant is to be employed.

Given the complexities of U.S. immigration law, individuals considering applying under the EB-2 category often consult with an immigration attorney to understand the requirements and the process in detail.

EB-3 refers to the third preference category of employment-based immigrant visas for the United States. It’s one of several preference categories under the U.S. system for allocating permanent resident status (green cards) based on employment. The EB-3 category is intended for:

  1. Skilled Workers: These are individuals whose job requires a minimum of 2 years training or work experience and are not temporary or seasonal.
  2. Professionals: These are qualified individuals whose jobs require at least a U.S. baccalaureate or foreign equivalent degree and are members of the profession.
  3. Other Workers (Unskilled Workers): These are individuals who perform unskilled labor requiring less than 2 years training or experience.

Each year, there’s a set number of visas available for each category, and sometimes there’s a backlog, especially for countries with high demand. The process involves an employer in the U.S. sponsoring the foreign worker, completing a labor certification process, and filing an immigrant petition with U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS).

To qualify, the foreign worker generally needs a permanent, full-time job offer from a U.S. employer and must meet the qualifications for the specific sub-category.

  1. Eligibility: U.S. citizens or permanent residents can petition for their foreign spouse to become a permanent resident.

  2. Application Process:

    • Petition: The U.S. citizen or permanent resident spouse files Form I-130, “Petition for Alien Relative,” with the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) on behalf of the foreign spouse.
    • Adjustment of Status (if in the U.S.): If the foreign spouse is already in the U.S. legally, they can file Form I-485, “Application to Register Permanent Residence or Adjust Status,” to adjust their status to a permanent resident without leaving the U.S.
    • Consular Processing (if outside the U.S.): If the foreign spouse is outside the U.S., after the I-130 is approved, they will go through consular processing at a U.S. embassy or consulate in their home country. This will involve an interview and further documentation.
  3. Conditional Residency: If the marriage is less than two years old when the foreign spouse becomes a permanent resident, they receive a conditional green card valid for two years. To remove conditions and get a 10-year green card, both spouses must file Form I-751, “Petition to Remove the Conditions on Residence,” within the 90 days before the two-year card expires.

  4. Verification: The USCIS may request an interview or additional evidence to verify the authenticity of the marriage. They want to ensure the marriage is bona fide and not for the sole purpose of obtaining a green card.

  5. Benefits: Once the foreign spouse receives a green card, they can live and work permanently in the U.S., and after a certain period and meeting other requirements, they can apply for U.S. citizenship.

  6. Potential Pitfalls: Marriages that are fraudulent or are solely for the purpose of obtaining immigration benefits can lead to severe consequences, including deportation, being barred from re-entering the U.S., and criminal penalties.

It’s advisable for couples to consult with an immigration attorney to understand the specific details, requirements, and potential challenges of the process.

Labor Certification is a process in the U.S. whereby employers must demonstrate that there are no qualified U.S. workers available and willing to perform the job for which a foreign worker is being sought. This certification is done by the Department of Labor (DOL).

The primary intent behind the Labor Certification process is to ensure that the employment of foreign workers in the U.S. will not adversely affect the job opportunities, wages, and working conditions of U.S. workers.

Here’s a brief outline of the process:

  1. Recruitment: The employer must make good faith efforts to recruit U.S. workers for the job opening at a wage equal or higher than the prevailing wage for that position in that geographic location. This typically involves advertising the position in various places, including newspapers and relevant job boards.

  2. Prevailing Wage Determination: The employer must determine the prevailing wage for the position in the job’s geographic area, either from DOL data or a relevant survey. The foreign worker must be paid at least this wage.

  3. Application: If, after recruitment efforts, the employer determines there are no willing and qualified U.S. workers for the position, they can then file an Application for Permanent Employment Certification, ETA Form 9089, with the DOL.

  4. DOL Review: The DOL then reviews the application. If it approves the application, the employer can proceed with the next steps in sponsoring the foreign worker for a green card.

  5. Petition with USCIS: After obtaining labor certification, the employer must file a petition with U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS). Only upon approval of this petition can the foreign worker apply for a green card or immigrant visa.

Remember, the Labor Certification process is only one step in the journey of obtaining lawful permanent residency (a green card) based on employment in the U.S.

The Green Card Lottery, officially known as the Diversity Visa (DV) Lottery, is a program run by the U.S. government to provide a pathway for individuals from countries with low rates of immigration to the United States to obtain lawful permanent resident status, also known as a green card.

Each year, the U.S. Department of State conducts the lottery, allowing eligible individuals to enter. Winners are selected randomly through a computer-based drawing. If selected, they have the opportunity to apply for a green card and, if approved, can immigrate to the United States. It’s a way to diversify the pool of immigrants to the U.S. by giving individuals from underrepresented countries a chance to pursue permanent residency.

Non-Immigrant Visas

  1. Purpose: The B-2 visa is for those traveling to the U.S. for leisure or tourism, to visit friends or relatives, or to seek medical treatment. It’s not for those intending to study, work, or stay permanently in the U.S.

  2. Duration: Typically, B-2 visa holders can stay in the U.S. for up to 6 months, but the actual duration is determined by the Customs and Border Protection officer at the port of entry. Extensions are possible under certain circumstances.

  3. Restrictions: B-2 visa holders cannot work or study for credit in the U.S. Engaging in such activities without the appropriate change of status can lead to removal and future visa denials.

  4. Application: The process involves submitting an application using the DS-160 form online, paying a visa application fee, scheduling and attending an interview at a U.S. embassy or consulate, and undergoing a review process.

  5. Eligibility: To be granted a B-2 visa, applicants must convince the consular officer that they intend to return to their home country after their visit and that they have the financial means to support themselves during their stay in the U.S.

Remember, U.S. visa policies and procedures can evolve over time, so it’s always good to consult the U.S. Department of State website or other reliable sources for the most current information when considering a visa application.

  1. F-1 Visa:

    • Purpose: This visa is for international students who wish to study at accredited U.S. colleges, universities, seminaries, conservatories, academic high schools, elementary schools, and other academic institutions or language training programs.
    • Eligibility: To qualify, students must be enrolled in a full-time academic program, have sufficient financial support, and demonstrate the intent to return to their home country after their studies.
    • Employment: F-1 students have certain restrictions on employment. They can work on campus with some conditions. After their first academic year, they may also apply for off-campus employment through Optional Practical Training (OPT) or Curricular Practical Training (CPT).
  2. F-2 Visa:

    • Purpose: This visa is designated for dependents of F-1 visa holders. Dependents can include a spouse and unmarried children under 21 years old.
    • Eligibility: F-2 visa holders are not permitted to work in the U.S. They can, however, attend school on a part-time basis. If they wish to attend school full-time or engage in employment, they would typically need to change their visa status to a relevant category.

Both visa categories require the primary applicant (the F-1 visa holder) to maintain their status for the F-2 visa holders to remain valid. If the F-1 holder falls out of status, the F-2 dependents will also be out of status.

  1. M-1 Visa:

    • Purpose: For students coming to the U.S. to enroll in vocational or non-academic programs. This does not include language training programs.
    • Duration: The duration of the M-1 visa is for the length of the course of study as indicated by the school, plus an additional 30 days, or for one year, whichever is shorter. Extensions can be granted under certain conditions.
    • Employment: M-1 students can engage in practical training only after completing their studies. This training must be directly related to the student’s area of study.
  2. M-2 Visa:

    • Purpose: For dependents of M-1 visa holders, which includes spouses and children under the age of 21.
    • Duration: The M-2 visa duration is the same as the M-1 holder’s authorized period of stay.
    • Employment: M-2 visa holders are not allowed to work while in the U.S. However, children with an M-2 visa are allowed to attend K-12 public or private schools.

For both visas, it’s essential that the school the individual plans to attend is SEVP (Student and Exchange Visitor Program) certified. The applicant should also have sufficient funds to support themselves throughout their course without needing employment and should maintain a residence abroad that they have no intention of abandoning.

J-1 Visa:

  • Purpose: The J-1 visa is a non-immigrant visa issued to individuals who are approved to participate in work-and-study-based exchange visitor programs in the U.S. These programs are intended to promote the interchange of persons, knowledge, and skills in the fields of education, arts, and sciences.

  • Examples of Participants: Au pairs, scholars, teachers, professors, research assistants, students, trainees, interns, summer camp counselors, and others.

  • Duration: Varies depending on the specific program, but there is usually a maximum duration. Some J-1 visa holders may also be subject to a 2-year home-country physical presence requirement after their program ends.

J-2 Visa:

  • Purpose: The J-2 visa is for the dependents (spouses and unmarried children under 21) of J-1 visa holders.

  • Employment: J-2 visa holders might be eligible to work in the U.S. after obtaining an Employment Authorization Document (EAD). The income from this employment should not be used to support the primary J-1 visa holder.

  • Duration: Generally, J-2 visa holders can remain in the U.S. as long as the principal J-1 visa holder maintains valid J-1 status.

Both J-1 and J-2 visas have specific rules and regulations depending on the particular exchange program, so it’s essential to check specifics based on the specific J-1 category.

Naturalization & Citizenship

N-400, Application for Naturalization:

  • Purpose: Used by lawful permanent residents (often referred to as green card holders) to apply for U.S. citizenship after meeting certain eligibility requirements.
  • Key Elements: The form asks for detailed information about the applicant’s background, residence and employment history, moral character, and understanding of the English language and U.S. government and history.
  • Process: After submitting the N-400 form, the applicant is generally required to attend a biometrics appointment, followed by an interview. During the interview, they may be tested on their English skills and knowledge of U.S. government and history (civics).
  • Outcome: If approved, the applicant takes the Oath of Allegiance and becomes a U.S. citizen.

It’s important for applicants to accurately complete the N-400 and to be aware of the eligibility requirements and potential challenges in the naturalization process.

Removal Defense & Litigation

“Cancellation of Removal” is a form of relief available to certain non-citizens in the United States who are facing removal (previously referred to as “deportation”). It allows eligible individuals to apply to have their removal cancelled and to adjust their status to that of a lawful permanent resident (green card holder). There are different eligibility criteria depending on whether the individual is a lawful permanent resident (LPR) or a non-permanent resident.

There are distinct eligibility requirements for different categories of non-citizens:

    1. Non-Legal Permanent Residents: For those who are not already green card holders:

      • Must have been physically present in the U.S. for a continuous period of at least 10 years before the notice to appear in immigration court was issued.
      • Must demonstrate good moral character during those 10 years.
      • Must not have been convicted of certain criminal offenses.
      • Must establish that removal would result in “exceptional and extremely unusual hardship” to a U.S. citizen or legal permanent resident spouse, parent, or child.

    2. Legal Permanent Residents (LPR): For those who already have green cards but are inadmissible or deportable due to certain grounds:

      • Must have been an LPR for at least 5 years.
      • Must have continuously resided in the U.S. for at least 7 years after being admitted in any status (and before certain triggering events, like committing a crime that makes one deportable).
      • Must not have been convicted of an aggravated felony.

It’s worth noting that an individual granted cancellation of removal can only receive this benefit once. Additionally, there’s an annual limit on the number of cancellations that can be granted to non-permanent residents, making it competitive.

If someone believes they may be eligible for cancellation of removal, it’s important to consult with an immigration attorney to discuss the specifics of their case.

“Withholding of Removal” is a type of protection granted to individuals in the United States who demonstrate that there is a clear probability they would face persecution in their home country on account of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion.

Here’s a brief overview:

  1. Eligibility: To qualify, an applicant must show that it is more likely than not that they would be persecuted if removed to their home country. This is a higher burden of proof than the “well-founded fear” standard required for asylum.

  2. Benefits: Individuals granted Withholding of Removal cannot be deported to the country where they would face persecution. However, the relief is more limited than asylum. For example, recipients cannot adjust to Lawful Permanent Resident status, cannot bring family members to the U.S., and may be subject to removal to a third country where they wouldn’t face persecution.

  3. Differences from Asylum: Asylum is another form of protection for individuals fearing persecution, but it offers more benefits, such as the ability to apply for a green card and eventually naturalize as a U.S. citizen. However, an individual who is ineligible for asylum (e.g., due to certain bars or missed filing deadlines) might still qualify for Withholding of Removal.

  4. Bar to Relief: Certain criminal convictions or participation in the persecution of others can bar an individual from being granted Withholding of Removal.

In practice, many applicants apply for both asylum and Withholding of Removal, treating the latter as a potential fallback if they cannot meet the eligibility requirements for asylum.

Asylum is a form of international protection given by the U.S. to foreign nationals who have been persecuted or have a well-founded fear of persecution on account of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion. Here’s a brief overview of asylum in the USA:

  1. Affirmative Asylum Process: This is for individuals who are not in removal proceedings. They can proactively apply for asylum with the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS).

  2. Defensive Asylum Process: This is for individuals who are in removal proceedings. They can seek asylum as a defense against removal from the U.S. This process is overseen by the Executive Office for Immigration Review (EOIR).

  3. Eligibility: To qualify, applicants must meet the definition of an asylee. They must have been persecuted or have a well-founded fear of persecution due to their race, religion, nationality, political opinion, or membership in a particular social group.

  4. One-Year Deadline: Generally, applicants need to apply for asylum within one year of arriving in the U.S. There are exceptions, but they are limited.

  5. Benefits: Individuals granted asylum can apply for a Social Security card, request permission to work in the U.S., petition to bring family members to the U.S., and apply for a Green Card (permanent residence).

  6. Rejection and Appeals: If an individual’s asylum application is denied, they might be able to appeal the decision, depending on the specifics of their case.

It’s worth noting that the asylum process can be complex and require legal representation to navigate effectively.

In the United States, immigration waivers are legal mechanisms that allow certain individuals to overcome specific grounds of inadmissibility and obtain lawful immigration status or visas, even if they would otherwise be ineligible due to various factors. These waivers are typically granted based on compelling humanitarian, family unity, or public interest reasons. There are several types of immigration waivers, including:

Waivers of Inadmissibility: These waivers are used to overcome reasons for inadmissibility, such as prior immigration violations, certain criminal convictions, health-related issues, or fraud/misrepresentation during the immigration process.

I-601 Waiver (Waiver of Grounds of Inadmissibility): This waiver is commonly used for family-based visa applicants who would be otherwise inadmissible due to factors like unlawful presence or certain criminal convictions. It requires demonstrating extreme hardship to a qualifying U.S. citizen or permanent resident family member.

I-601A Provisional Unlawful Presence Waiver: This waiver is designed for certain immediate relatives of U.S. citizens who are ineligible for adjustment of status due to unlawful presence. It allows them to request a waiver for the unlawful presence bar before leaving the U.S. for consular processing.

J-1 Visa Waiver: Exchange visitors on J-1 visas may apply for a waiver of the two-year home-country physical presence requirement if they can prove that returning to their home country would cause exceptional hardship or that they qualify for another basis of waiver.

VAWA (Violence Against Women Act) Waiver: VAWA self-petitioners who have been abused by a U.S. citizen or permanent resident spouse may be eligible for a waiver to overcome certain inadmissibility grounds.

U Visa Waiver: Victims of certain crimes who have U visas may be eligible for a waiver of inadmissibility if it can be demonstrated that denying the waiver would result in extreme hardship.

Immigration waivers are typically evaluated on a case-by-case basis, and the applicant must provide strong evidence to support their claim for a waiver. The decision to grant a waiver is at the discretion of the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) or, in some cases, the U.S. Department of State (for visa applicants at U.S. consulates). It’s important to consult with an immigration attorney or seek legal guidance when applying for an immigration waiver due to the complexity of the process and the potential consequences of denial.

In U.S. immigration law, “appeal” and “motion to reopen” are two distinct mechanisms that individuals can use to challenge or revisit adverse decisions made by immigration officials or immigration courts. Here’s a brief explanation of each:


An appeal is a legal procedure where a higher court is asked to review the decision of a lower court or administrative body to ensure that the proper law was applied correctly. In the context of immigration law, individuals can appeal adverse decisions to the Board of Immigration Appeals (BIA) or, in some cases, to federal appellate courts. Appeals must generally be based on legal arguments rather than presenting new facts.

Motion to Reopen:

A motion to reopen is a request to the original adjudicating body (such as an immigration judge or the USCIS) to reconsider its decision in light of new facts or evidence. This process allows individuals to present new material evidence that was not available at the time of the original hearing. The motion to reopen must be substantiated with affidavits or other evidentiary materials demonstrating the new facts. It is important to note that there is generally a 90-day strict time limit for filing a motion to reopen, after the final order of the immigration judge, although there are some exceptions to the time limit in certain circumstances.

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